Why does the washing machine spin the drum only in one direction?

You loaded the laundry, started the wash, and almost immediately discovered that the washing machine only rotates the drum in one direction. Only very observant users notice this problem, and not even the first time. As a rule, the problem is accompanied by a motor error (an error code is displayed on the display) or the washing machine simply freezes while washing.

What to do if the washing machine drum does not spin

Having habitually thrown your laundry into the washing machine, you go about your business. But then you realize that you don’t hear the usual noise when washing. You go to check and see: the machine has stopped working. Sounds familiar? A lot of questions arise in my head: why doesn’t the drum spin in the washing machine? What to do? Don’t panic, in our publication you will find all the possible causes of the problem and options for solving them.

Unique washing machines from the Miele brand

Miele is one of the world leaders in the development of premium home appliances. Unlike many analogues, Miele washing machines are manufactured using ultra-modern German technologies using exclusively high-quality components that are tested for wear and will serve you for many years.

However, appliances from Miele are not only high-quality and reliable devices. The company's designers pay great attention to the visual component and develop new models so that they are ideally suited to a wide variety of interiors. Elegant solutions are available in white, silver, blue, as well as machines made of stainless steel.

The user can choose both vertical models (ideal for small spaces, as well as people who have lower back problems) and front-loading devices (such machines are more economical and have greater visual appeal). Depending on the need, you can choose both narrow washing machines and devices with a spacious tank.

We should also highlight the unique line of washing machines and dryers. Unlike classic models, which can carry out a wash cycle and a spin cycle, such devices can almost completely dry the laundry, depending on the wishes of the owner. Various drying programs are available according to humidity level, fabric type, as well as universal programs “Into the closet” and “Into the closet +”. Using drying machines makes life much easier and allows you to combine 2 devices in one. Such machines are equipped with special systems that allow you to gently dry clothes by exposure to hot air. The user can also use the additional “Steam” function, which will prevent the appearance of wrinkles and provide anti-allergenic treatment to clothes.

The drum does not spin when washing

Similar malfunctions can occur in any Indesit, Ariston, Bosch or Electrolux model. Correctly identifying the cause of a breakdown is 50% of success. Another 50% will come from proper repairs.

Notice at what stage the process stopped: “Washing” or “Spin”? Assess external signs of a problem. To do this, unplug the equipment, open the drain hatch and remove the water from the tank. Then remove all the laundry from the tub and try to turn the drum by hand. Depending on whether it rotates or not, further actions are described below.

Attention - overload! Divide the laundry into two parts and put it back into the machine. If the process starts, it means that the reason for stopping is due to overload; everything is in order with the equipment.

The drum in the washing machine does not spin during the spin cycle

All problems are divided into two types. The first includes minor problems and management errors that are easy to fix on your own. The latter require disassembly and repair. If you do not understand the device, it is better to call a specialist.

You are faced with the following problem: upon startup, all processes are functioning, the automatic washing machine (AWM) fills with water. But during the spin cycle the rotation stops and the laundry is wet. What's the matter:

  • Make sure you have selected the correct mode . In the mode for delicate, woolen fabrics, spinning is not provided, so it does not turn on. Just set the spin speed to minimum. Or take things out and spin them manually.
  • Check if water is draining from the tank . At the end of each cycle, soapy water is drained from the tank and clean water is added. If this does not happen, the next stage will not begin. Inspect the drain filter and hose. Unclog them. After draining, the equipment should resume operation.

But what to do if the washing machine breaks down and no longer works? Contact a specialist or do the repair yourself. If a breakdown is detected, the part will need to be replaced.

Where to look for the problem:

  • In the drain pump (pump ). Its breakdown or clogged impeller makes it impossible to drain water.
  • In the pressure switch (level sensor). In normal mode, the sensor sends a signal to the control board to start spinning. Inspect the contacts from the pressure switch to the board and the sensor itself.

  • In the engine . If the motor does not function, then the work stops completely. Requires diagnosis and repair.
  • In the tachometer . Controls the number of drum revolutions. Its failure causes rotation to stop.

The machine does not turn, but takes in water

The causes of the malfunction are also similar with the following symptoms:

  • The washing machine hums, but does not spin.
  • The CM works, but the drum does not spin.

The solution to the problems is the same for models of Samsung, Ardo, Zanussi, Veko and other brands. Immediately drain the water, remove items and turn the drum by hand. If it does not rotate, then check:

  • Drive belt . It transmits rotation from the engine to the tank wheel. With prolonged use, it could wear out, tear, or simply fall off the pulley. Detach the rear panel of the SMA and inspect the belt. If it is intact, put it on the pulley. In other cases, replacement is carried out.


This only happens during the laundry wash cycle. In this mode, the operating algorithm of the automatic type machine includes rotation in different directions. First the drum spins in one direction, then after a pause - in the other. Thanks to this, the laundry gets rid of dirt well.

Luke sma

This failure does not affect other components of the washing machine. And in principle, it can be used in this state. But let us emphasize once again - the laundry does not wash well.

Expert opinion

I work in the household appliance repair industry. Extensive experience in restoring washing machines and dishwashers.

Ask a Question

To put it simply, it will flop around half as much, because the program execution time will not change. And the number of revolutions made by the drum will be less than half.

The drum does not spin when washing

Why doesn't the drum rotate when washing? Here are the main reasons:

  1. Imbalance.
  2. Problems with the drive belt.
  3. Failure of the heating element.
  4. Motor malfunction (brush wear).
  5. Problems with the tachometer (motor speed controller).
  6. The electronic module has burned out.
  7. Wiring fault.
  8. Entry of a foreign object.

There are many reasons: how to figure out what happened in your case and what needs to be done with the washing machine, read below.

The drum in the washing machine does not spin: 5 main reasons and troubleshooting

Stopping the rotation of the centrifuge can indicate different types of malfunction, but before calling a technician, it is recommended to check the most popular reasons:

  1. The washing machine is overloaded. Modern cars have a sensor that is triggered when there is excess load of things. This problem can be corrected by reducing the volume of things. Afterwards the washing program starts again.
  2. A foreign object has gotten inside. The unit must be turned off, drain the remaining water and remove the clothes. After opening the lid, you need to turn the centrifuge in different directions by hand. If it only spins in one direction or is completely blocked, then you need to check for foreign objects between the drum and the tank. To remove the item, you need to unscrew the back cover and remove the heating element, which is located between the tank and the centrifuge. The freed up space will allow you to check for the presence of foreign objects. If it is found, the heating element is installed back, the lid is secured and the machine is ready for washing.
  3. Drive belt faulty. You can understand that the problem is in the drive belt by also spinning the empty drum. If it does not move as usual, but more easily, then you need to unscrew the back wall of the washer and look at the location of the belt. It may slip or rupture. In the first option, you should place it on a torque element - a pulley. If the part is torn, it must be replaced with a new one.
  4. Electric motor failure. The graphite brushes of the motor may be faulty because they do not create the necessary magnetic field. Or the motor has shorted out due to a broken coil and a voltage drop. Only replacing parts or buying a new engine will help restore operation.
  5. Electronic module malfunction. On all modern models of washing machines, the electronic module performs the function of a “brain” - it controls functions after starting the program. Failure of this element results in the centrifuge stopping if there is no hatch lock signal. The situation can only be corrected by flashing the device or purchasing a new module.

Read more ► The washing machine does not heat the water when washing: reasons and their elimination, why it takes a long time to heat up

The latter reasons require additional diagnostics, which will reveal the cause of the breakdown and help protect new parts from a similar fate.

Some washing machines may stop working due to a clogged filter or faulty heating element.

Doesn't spin when spinning

The automatic washing machine carried out the wash normally, but the drum does not spin during the spin cycle. Why does this happen? Here are some reasons:

  • The “No spin” program is turned on, or the delicate wash mode has been selected. In this case, the laundry is wrung out minimally or not at all.
  • If there is a blockage in the drain system, the water does not drain after washing, and the spin cycle cannot begin.
  • An imbalance has occurred. The load of laundry has been exceeded, which has led to imbalance. Things got to one side and work stopped.

  • The pressure switch, which sends information to the main module about the amount of water in the tank, is faulty. If there is no command, the spin will not start.
  • Problems with the control board. The wiring may have burned out or the control triac has burned out.

A similar malfunction can happen with any brand of washing machine: Indesit, Ariston, Bosch, Zanussi and others. It is necessary to react in time and fix the problem.

What to do if the machine suddenly stops washing

An unexpected stop of the washing machine is confusing. But you can carry out self-diagnosis to rule out the simplest problems.

Preparing for diagnostics:

  1. Switch the unit to the “spin” or “drain” mode. If it doesn't work, then move on to the next step.
  2. Unplug the appliance and drain the water through the drain hose or drain valve.
  3. Take things out. If they have traces of powder, then the machine broke down during the washing stage. If there are no traces of powder, then the spin mode does not work.
  4. Weigh your items: overloading will block the washing machine from working.
  5. Spin the empty drum to check for foreign objects and possible belt failure.
  6. Turn the device back and unscrew the lid. Visually check the serviceability of the belt, the temperature of the heating element and the presence of foreign objects.
  7. From the front side of the device, remove the instrument panel housing and visually inspect the module for the presence of dark spots and soldered wires.

Such diagnostics allows you to eliminate the malfunction or understand the problem, which you then need to contact a technician about.

The machine does not turn, but takes in water

Why does the machine take in water, but the drum does not rotate? Immediately drain the water and try turning the drum by hand. If it doesn't turn by hand, it's probably jammed.

For what reasons did the problem occur:

  • The drive belt has broken or fallen off and is wrapped around the pulley. This was the reason for the jamming.
  • An object is stuck between the tank and drum. It could be any items that fell out of the pockets.
  • The drum bearing has deteriorated, so it cannot rotate normally.

In most cases, bearings fail due to prolonged use, overloading of the drum, or if the seal has never been lubricated.

The washing machine hums, but does not spin

You start the program, the washing machine begins to hum, as if drawing water, but the drum does not turn. Let's look at why this happens:

  • If the engine breaks down. Perhaps the brushes are worn out, the lamellas are worn out, or a short circuit has occurred. This can only be checked by inspecting the engine.

  • When the bearing is jammed.

CM does not work, the drum does not spin

The washing machine may not work at all for the following reasons:

  • Electronic module malfunction. As a result, the engine does not receive the command to start working.
  • Failure of the heating element. If the heater breaks down, the machine may not only wash in cold water, but may not work at all. Why does this happen? If scale forms and overheats, the heating element may explode and block the operation of the MAS.

SM works, but does not turn

If you don’t know why the washing machine works but the drum doesn’t spin, here are a few reasons:

  • The washing machine has filled with water, but the drum does not rotate. Most likely, the heating element has burned out.
  • Malfunction of the triac on the module, which is responsible for engine operation. In this case, the program starts, but the motor does not receive commands to rotate. The electric brushes could also burn out.

How to call a repairman?

If turning the machine on and off does not help, you should contact the official service center, which is listed in the device’s operating manual, or check this information on the manufacturer’s website. Unfortunately, the official services of many manufacturers are located only in large cities and do not perform repairs quickly. And the price of such pleasure can be very high.

An alternative to official services can be private “on-call” repairmen who will arrive quickly and be able to repair the car. However, many of them will not have specialized training and may damage the device. It is also worth understanding that many private owners work illegally and can only bear a conditional guarantee for the quality of work performed.

But don't be upset. Such a serious breakdown can be an excellent reason to buy a new washing machine, which will be significantly superior to its predecessor in all respects, and will also cope much better with even the most serious stains.

How to fix the situation

What should I do to troubleshoot? Let's look at the problems and their solutions.


To correct the imbalance, you need to stop the program. If there is water in the tank, it must be drained. To do this, unscrew the drain filter - it is located behind the hatch under the front panel. Read more about how to do this below.

Now open the hatch door and distribute the laundry evenly throughout the drum.

Blockage in the system

To clear a clog in the drain filter, proceed as follows:

  1. On the front panel below, open the small hatch by releasing the latches.
  2. Unscrew the filter, drain the water into a container and clean the filter from debris.
  3. Reinstall the part.

Belt problems

In order to check the drive belt, you need to remove the rear panel of the CM. Proceed sequentially:

  1. Remove the plug from the socket, turning off the power to the machine.
  2. Turn off the water supply and disconnect the intake hose (be careful, there may be water in it).
  3. Take a screwdriver and unscrew the screws on the back cover.
  4. After removing the panel, inspect the belt. If it frays or falls off, it needs to be put back in place. In case of wear, a new element is put on.
  5. First put the belt on the small pulley of the electric motor, then, while simultaneously turning the drum pulley, put the belt on it.
  6. Installation is complete, screw the panel into place.

Heating element malfunction, foreign object

These two problems can be resolved simultaneously:

  1. Remove the back cover as described above. In some models, the heating element is located behind the front panel: Samsung, Bosch, Siemens.
  2. There is a heating element under the tank. To check it, you need to connect a multimeter to the contacts and measure the resistance.
  3. When you are convinced of the malfunction, disconnect the wires from the heater.
  4. Unscrew the central nut (not all the way) and push the bolt inward.
  5. Prying the edges, pull the element out.
  6. Now you can check through the hole to see if there is a foreign object inside and remove it.
  7. Install the new heating element in reverse order.

Engine problems

You don't have to put the panel back in place since the motor is also at the back. Inspect its wiring for damage.

Then you need to remove the engine to inspect the brushes and other parts.

  1. Disconnect the motor wires.
  2. Unscrew the mounting bolts.
  3. Pull out the motor and its brushes. If they are worn out, new parts need to be installed. The same applies to lamellas and windings. They are checked last, if everything is in order with the brushes.
  4. Inspect the tachogenerator. It is mounted on the engine housing. If faulty, replace.

The main module burned out

It is difficult to repair electronics yourself, but it is possible to inspect them for damage.

  1. Unscrew the two screws at the back and remove the top cover.
  2. Remove the powder dispenser tray by pressing the latch in the center.
  3. Unscrew the control panel mounting bolts.
  4. Unclamping the latches, remove the panel from the SMA body.
  5. Inspect the wiring for integrity. Unclench the clamps and, having disconnected the panel, inspect the control board.
  6. If burnt parts are visible on it, it means repair or replacement is required.
  7. You can replace the element. Reinstall the new module, connect the connectors, and secure the panel to the chassis.

All parts in the washing machine can be replaced independently, but not everyone can cope with their repair. If you are not confident in your abilities, contact the service center.


Online diagnostics of a washing machine

If your machine stops washing or rinsing clothes normally, then some kind of malfunction or breakdown has occurred.
You can try to find the problem yourself. Run diagnostics

Select which operation your washing machine does not perform:

1. Doesn’t drain 2. Doesn’t rotate the drum 3. Doesn’t spin clothes 4. Noises, knocks, buzzes when spinning 5. Doesn’t turn on

Checking the operation of the drain pump Is the drain pump of the washing machine working? Yes No I don’t know << Back

Clogged hoses in the washing machine If the sound corresponds to the normal sound that has always been observed when the device is working, the cause is probably a clog.

Was there a blockage in the drain hose? Yes

<< Back

The drain pump does not work! If the sound matches the normal sound of the drain pump, it is recommended that you check the drain filter first.

After cleaning, does the drain pump work and does the washing machine drain water? Not really

<< Back

Operation of the drain pump The sound of the pump is usually immediately audible and noticeable. If there is no sound, the pump is not working. We are looking for how to separately enable the water drainage program. As a rule, this is a separate option. After the program has been turned on, the pump should start working in 1-3 seconds. If everything is done correctly and the pump is operational, a buzzing sound will appear. If you hear no buzzing or other sounds when you turn on the program, the pump is probably faulty.

Is the washing machine drain pump working? Not really

<< Back

Clogged car hoses If you have identified a clog in the hoses, you need to disassemble them, clean them, and then reassemble everything.

Does the washing machine drain well? Not really

<< Back

Hurray, you did a great job, you fixed it.

<< Return to the beginning of diagnostics

The drain pump is faulty, call a professional.

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

The washing machine does not rotate the drum. During the operation of the washing machine, such a problem may occur. Each model has a different drum operation. It rotates according to a given algorithm, which is set by the program. This principle applies to spinning and washing. If you are not sure whether the drum is not spinning or whether it is working, put the laundry in the washing machine. Start the spin program. If the machine is running, it will first drain the water and then start spinning. In this case, a rotational process will be observed. If rotation is not visible, then check the belt. First, turn off the program, then unplug the wire from the outlet so that power does not flow into the device. Now you need to remove the back cover. You will need to carefully inspect the drum belt. It is quite easy to determine whether it is in the wrong position or damaged.

Is the washing machine belt torn or stretched? Not really

<< Back

Broken drum drive belt If the belt breaks, it will be immediately visible. There are also often cases when the belt simply stretches, which is why the drum, accordingly, does not rotate. Do not allow the machine to operate if the belt breaks. It is important to check whether it has wound around the engine pulley or broken the wiring to the engine. The heating element and temperature sensor may also be damaged if the belt does catch the wires. It is imperative to ensure that the belt model is original. If you choose an unsuitable or low-quality product, this will affect the performance of other devices. How do you know what kind of belt you have? There will be a marking written on the old one, compare it with the one indicated on the belt offered to you. You can also find out belt information by car model.

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

Washing machine motor malfunction If a malfunction is not found, the block with wires must be disconnected from the electric motor. Carefully remove it. We visually evaluate the engine. It may have melting, cracks, or other effects that clearly indicate damage. We call the windings of the tachogenerator and the engine. It is important to understand that you can fully study how correctly the engine operates and whether there is a malfunction only at the stand. If rotation does not occur, there may be a problem with more than just the motor. Sometimes the cause is a malfunctioning electronic module. If a short circuit occurs in the engine, the module could be damaged, while the engine remains operational. Also, the wires could be damaged.

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

Repairing a washing machine that does not spin clothes After completing the washing process, the washing machine may not spin properly or may not start spinning. Firstly, look, perhaps another mode is set, which does not involve turning on the spin cycle at all. This happens, for example, with programs related to washing woolen items and delicate fabrics. To check, run the spin cycle separately. If the washing machine does not drain water, we proceed to check the pump.

Does the washing machine now spin clothes? Not really

<< Back

Congratulations, you have solved your problem!

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

Repair of washing machines, imbalance Modern washing machines place the laundry on the drum before spinning. This is necessary for quality work. Check if this feature works. Sometimes a situation occurs when things get wrapped up in a ball that cannot be unwound automatically within a certain time. At this point the work stops. You need to unwind this laundry yourself, lay it out and continue operating the washing machine. In this case, it is important to turn off the machine, and then, when the laundry is laid out, turn on a separate spin program.

Does the washing machine now spin clothes? Not really

<< Back

Washing machine repair, drum drive repair Now you need to check the drum drive belt. We remove the cover and visually assess the condition of the belt. There should be no damage. If the tension is weak, the spin may not turn on. If you need to replace the belt, you should only replace it with the original one. After replacing, we try the program again.

Fault found, does the washing machine spin? Not really

<< Back

The engine or electronic module is faulty, call a repairman to your home.

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

The washing machine hums, makes noise during the spin cycle, rumbles, and makes a jet plane noise. If the washing machine makes noise during operation, making unusual sounds, it’s time to pay special attention to it. In this case, a visible breakdown or lack of functionality may not be observed, but the appearance of strange sounds indicates that it is time to look for a malfunction. It is important to understand that a new car that has just been delivered should be inspected for shipping bolts. If you forget to remove them, noise and vibration are inevitable. So, let's begin! We turn the washing machine drum and listen to extraneous sounds.

When rotating, do you hear extraneous noise, hum, balls rolling, does the drum move unevenly with slight jamming? Not really

<< Back

If the drum rotates and uncharacteristic sounds appear, including vibration, it’s time to check the bearings. If they malfunction, they will have to be replaced.

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

The counterweight of the washing machine has come loose. The fastening of the counterweights must also be of high quality. If they are “loose”, it’s time to eliminate this defect. In some cases, you can notice that the bolts that secure the stones are completely missing. In this case, the connectors for mounting will be visible. The bolts need to be found and put in place - they probably simply came loose. A rumble heard while the washing machine is operating may indicate that the bolts have partially loosened. To check the bolts, you can simply push the drum. If it is secure, the bolts are fine. If it moves, there is a defect.

Do you hear any noise, clanging or rattling noises when moving the washing machine tub? Not really

<< Back

The counterweight has come off

<< Return to the beginning of diagnostics

Checking the shock absorbers of the washing machine Checking the shock absorbers. If you hear vibration or excessive noise during the spin cycle, there may be a problem with the shock absorbers. Sometimes the washer moves. Now let's check the functionality. Remove the top cover. Click on the tank, move it five to seven centimeters down. A normal reaction will be observed if the tank rises sharply, jumping a little and stopping in its normal place. If this does not happen, the shock absorbers need to be replaced.

Are the shock absorbers of the washing machine working? Not really

<< Back

If a visible defect has not been identified, check whether a foreign object may have entered the machine. Replacing shock absorbers. The problem with shock absorbers wearing out occurs quite often over time.

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

Replacing washing machine shock absorbers. Malfunction and wear of shock absorbers is a fairly common phenomenon.

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

The washing machine does not turn on. It is worth trying to find the cause of the problem yourself and fix it. We start by connecting the device to the network. Next, click on the “network” button. In different car models, different indications are triggered: here either the display will start working, or, on the contrary, some other button.

Does the washing machine have an indicator? Not really

<< Back

Hatch lock lock (UBL) You can check it by turning on any of the programs. We choose what we will use. Click on the corresponding button. Don't forget to pay attention to the inclusion. As a rule, the process of activating a function is characterized by the presence of a certain sound, for example a click, with which the device makes it clear that pressing again is not necessary and the machine is already working. If there is no sound, the button may be broken. In this case, the main thing that must be done is to block the hatch and start working. If this happens, everything is fine.

The washing machine is blocking the hatch and the UBL is triggered? Not really

<< Back

Water fill valve malfunction

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

The washing machine hatch does not lock

<< Return to the beginning of the diagnosis.

No indication Checking the electrical circuit. If you notice that the washing machine does not respond to being turned on, it is first recommended to check the power supply. The outlet may be faulty. Try connecting another device. If the outlet works, you need to check whether the circuit that conducts energy through the washing machine from one element to another is intact. To do this, you will need a multimeter, which will help you fully analyze the ability to respond to an electrical signal at several stages of operation. If there is no network connection anywhere, this is probably the problem. We carry out this manipulation until we reach the electronic module. If we are talking about an old washing machine, here it will look like the device’s program. When you turn on the button, there should be no breaks in the circuit. If the circuit works, everything is fine electrically.

Is the washing machine's power supply OK? Not really

<< Back

Repair of electronic module (unit)

<< Return to the beginning of diagnostics

Contact circuit fault

<< Return to the beginning of diagnostics

In the case of vertical loading, there are two ways to determine the malfunction:

  • By the sound of rotation. There is always a short pause between twists - 1-2 seconds. And it significantly exceeds the rotation time. But in this way, only an experienced washing machine repairman can determine the breakdown.
  • ]By rotation of the pulley. To do this, you need to remove the side panel. As a rule, this is the right one. We unscrew the screws at the back of the car, and sometimes there is one at the bottom, in the front. Then pull the panel out of the housing guides, which are located at the top. After this, the pulley with the engine drive belt will be available for viewing.

Are you using citric acid?

Oh yes! No

Expert opinion

I work in the household appliance repair industry. Extensive experience in restoring washing machines and dishwashers.

Ask a Question

Important! You need to remove the panel only after disconnecting the SMA from the power supply!

The reason the drum rotates in one direction is damage to the electronic module. It is he who controls all the elements of the machine, including the rotation of the motor in different directions when washing, as well as when spinning clothes.

In this case, there are two possible solutions to the problem:

  1. Purchase of a new controller, with possible firmware - recording software corresponding to the model of the washing machine.
  2. Repair.

The first method is the most expensive. In addition, you need to understand the following: you may not find the corresponding module due to the rarity or great age of the model. As a rule, it is possible to order it from the manufacturer. But in this case, the waiting period will be 1-3 months, and the cost is comparable to buying an inexpensive machine.

The best option is repair. But in this case, you need a qualified electronics specialist who must also understand the operating principles of an automatic washing machine.

SMA control module

Note that the relays located on the module are responsible for controlling the engine. There are three of them. Understanding the circuit design and knowing how to test the relay, you can try to restore the operation of the electronic controller yourself.

We emphasize once again that it is possible to operate the machine in this condition, but it is not advisable due to the deterioration in the quality of washing clothes.

( 2 ratings, average 4.5 out of 5 )
Did you like the article? Share with friends:
For any suggestions regarding the site: [email protected]
Для любых предложений по сайту: [email protected]